Faculty and Staff

Associate Director, Center on Teaching and Learning
Baker, Scott, Ph.D.
Senior Research Associate
(541) 346-6593

Ph.D., University of Oregon, 1993, School Psychology
M.S., Western Washington University, 1984, Psychology
B.A. Long Beach State University, 1981, Psychology

Literacy and Mathematics
English as a Second Language
Response to Intervention (RtI) frameworks

Selected Publications

Nelson-Walker, N. J., Fien, H., Kosty, D. B., Smolkowski, K., Smith, J. L. M., & Baker, S. K. (2013). Evaluating the effects of a systemic intervention on first-grade teachers' explicit reading instruction. Learning Disability Quarterly, 36(4) 215-230. doi: 10.1177/0731948712472186

Smith, J., Nelson-Walker, N., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S., & Kosty, D. (2013). Efficacy of a multi-tiered reading intervention in first grade and predictors of differential response: A clustered, randomized controlled trial. Manuscript in preparation. 

Doabler, C. T., Fien, H., Nelson Walker, N. J., & Baker, S. K. (2012). Evaluating three elementary mathematics programs for presence of eight research-based instructional design principles. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 200-211

Doabler, C. T., Strand Cary, M., Jungjohann, K., Fien, H., Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., & Chard, D. (2012). Enhancing core math instruction for students at-risk for mathematics disabilities. http://cec.metapress.com/content/6g7131hu880w0w55/ TEACHING Exceptional Children, 44(4), 48–57.

Baker, D. L., Park, Y., & Baker, S. K. (2011). Effect of Initial Status and Growth in Pseudoword Reading on Spanish Reading Comprehension at the End of First Grade. Psicothema.

Baker, S. K., Fien, H., & Baker, D. L. (2011). Robust Reading Instruction in the Early Grades: Conceptual and Practical Issues in the Integration and Evaluation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Instructional Supports. Focus on Exceptional Children.

Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K. Fien, H., Jungjohann, K., & Strand Cary, M. (2011). Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the range of students in general education settings? In R. M. Gersten & R. Newman-Gonchar (Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49–64). Baltimore, MD: Brooke Publishing.

Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., & Strand Cary, M. (2011). Examining the efficacy of a tier 2 kindergarten intervention report (Technical Report 1102). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.

Clarke, B., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Doabler, C. T., & Chard, D. J. (2011). The impact of a comprehensive tier 1 core kindergarten program on the achievement of students at-risk in mathematics. Elementary School Journal, 111, 561–584. doi: 10.1086/659033 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/659033>

Fien, H., Park, Y., Stoolmiller, M., Baker, S.K., Smith, J.L., & Kame’enui, E.J. (2011). An examination of the relation of Nonsense Word Fluency initial skill status and growth to reading outcomes for beginning readers. School Psychology Review.

Fien, H., Smith, J. L., Baker, S.K., Chaparro, E., Preciado, J., & Baker, D. (2011). Including English Learners in a Multi-Tiered Approach to Early Reading Instruction and Intervention. Assessment for Effective Intervention.

Baker, S.K., Smolkowski, K., Smith, J. L. M., Fien, H., Kame'enui, E., Beck, C. (2010). The Impact of Oregon Reading First on Student Reading Outcomes. [Supplemental Technical Appendix]. Elementary School Journal. Technical Appendix

Baker, D. L.Baker, S. K.; (2009). Second language acquisition. In Anderman, Eric (ed.). Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia, pp. 782-786. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA.
Baker, S. K., Chard, D. J., Ketterlin-Geller, L., R., Apichatabutra, C., & Doabler, C. (2009). Teaching writing to at-risk students: The quality of evidence for self-regulated strategy development. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 303-320.
Chard, D., Ketterlin-Geller, L., R., Baker, S. K., Doabler, C., & Apichatabutra, C. (2009). Repeated reading interventions for students with learning disabilities: Status of the evidence. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 263-281.
Coyne, M. D., Zipoli, R. P., Chard, D. J., Faggella-Luby, M., Ruby, M., Santoro, L. E., & Baker, S. (2009). Direct instruction of comprehension: Instructional examples from intervention research on listening and reading comprehension. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25, 221-245.
Baker, S., & Baker, D. L. (2008). ELLs and Response to Intervention: Improving Quality of Instruction in General and Special Education. In Grigorenko, E. (Ed.) Educating Individuals with Disabilities: IDEA 2004 and Beyond. NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Baker, S., Smolkowski, K., Katz, R., Fien, H., Seeley, J., Kame'enui, E., & Thomas Beck, C. (2008). Reading fluency as a predictor of reading proficiency in low-performing high poverty schools. School Psychology Review, 37, 18-37. –Named by NASP best paper of 2008. http://www.nasponline.org/resources/resourcesbytopic.aspx?topic=Reading
Chard, D., Baker, S. K., Clarke, B., Jungjohann, K., Davis, K. L. S., & Smolkowski, K. (2008). Preventing early mathematics difficulties: The feasibility of a rigorous kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 31(1), 11-20.
Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., & Chard, D. (2008). Best practices in mathematics assessment and intervention with elementary students. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (Vol. V), (pp.453-464). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., & Chard, D. (2008). An analysis of early numeracy curriculum-based measurement: Examining the role of growth in student outcomes. Remedial & Special Education, 29, 46-57.
Fien, H., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., Smith, J. M., Kame'enui, E. J., & Thomas Beck, C. (2008). Using nonsense word fluency to predict reading proficiency in K-2 for English learners and native English speakers. School Psychology Review, 37(3), 391-408.
Ketterlin-Geller, L., R., Baker, S. K., & Chard, D. (2008). Mathematics instruction and assessment in secondary settings. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology (Vol. V), (pp.465-477). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.
Santoro, L. E., Chard, D. C., Howard, L., Baker, S. K. (2008). Making the VERY most of read alouds to promote comprehension and vocabulary. Reading Teacher, 61(5), 396-408.

Baker, S. K., Kame’enui, E. J., Simmons, D. C., Simonsen, B., Santoro, L. E. (2007). Characteristics of students with diverse learning and curricular needs. In M. Coyne, E. Kame’enui, & D. Carnine (Eds). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Baker, S. K., Kame’enui, E., Simmons, D., & Simonsen, B. (2007) Characteristics of students with learning and curricular needs. In Coyne, M., Kame’enui, E., & Carnine, D. (Eds.) Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners, 3rd Edition, (pp. 23 – 43). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Baker, S. K., & O'Keefe, D. (2007). Task 1.2: Reading and mathematics services in kindergarten through grade 3 for students with special needs. Eugene, OR: Pacific Institutes for Research.
Baker, S., Smith, J. M., Fien, H., Otterstedt, J., Katz, R., Baker, D. L., Beck, C. T. (2007). Three-Year Report on Oregon Reading First Impact and Implementation (Tech. Rep.). Eugene: University of Oregon.
Ketterlin-Geller, L., R., Jungjohann, K., Chard, D., & Baker, S. K. (2007). From arithmetic to algebra. Educational Leadership, 65(3), 66-71.
Santoro, L. E., Baker, S. K., Chard, D. C., & Howard, L. (2007). The comprehension conversation: Using intentional and purposeful text-based discourse during read alouds to promote student comprehension and vocabulary. In B. Taylor & J. Ysseldyke (Eds.) Educational Interventions for Struggling Readers,; (pp. 109-137). New York: Teachers College Press.
Chard, D.J., Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., Otterstedt, J., Braun, D., & Katz, R. (2005). Using measures of number sense to screen for difficulties in mathematics: Preliminary findings. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30(2), 3-14.
Baker, S. K., Gersten, R., & Lee, D. (2002). A synthesis of empirical research on teaching mathematics to low-achieving students. Elementary School Journal, 103(1), 51-73.
Baker, S. K., Gersten, R., & Lee, D. (2001). A meta-analysis of math instruction studies for low-achieving students (Tech. Rep. No. 2001-01). Eugene, OR: Eugene Research Institute.
Baker, Gersten, and Lee (2002) synthesized findings from 28 years of research on interventions for students struggling in learning math. The Center on Instruction's synopsis highlights the key findings from this synthesis and outlines recommendations for practices that follow from the findings. Both the synthesis and the synopsis are available for download.

Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Strand-Cary, M., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S., Fien, H., & Kosty, D. (in review). Preliminary evaluation of a tier-2 mathematics intervention for first grade students: Utilizing a theory of change to guide formative evaluation activities. School Psychology Review.

Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Baker, S., Kosty, D., & Strand-Cary, M. (in press). The science behind curriculum development and evaluation: Taking a design science approach in the production of a tier 2 mathematics curriculum. Learning Disability Quarterly.

Doabler, C. T., Nelson-Walker, N., Kosty, D., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., & Clarke, B. (in press). Examining Teachers’ Use of Evidence-Based Practices During Core Mathematics Instruction. Assessment for Effective Intervention.

Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Kosty, D., Smolkowski, K., Clarke, B., Miller, S. J., & Fien, H. (in press). Examining the association between explicit mathematics instruction and student mathematics achievement. Elementary School Journal.

Selected Presentations

Carlson, S. E., Nelson-Walker, N. J., Kennedy, P. C., Biancarosa, G., Turtura, J., Crone, D. A., Baker, S. K., & Fien, H. (2013, March). Measuring the quantity and quality of instructional interactions for middle school literacy improvement. Poster presented at the Spring Conference of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, DC

Carlson, S.E., Kennedy, P., Biancarosa, G., Nelson, N.J., Crone, D.A., Baker, S.K., &  Fien, H. (2013, July). Evaluating the Quantity and Quality of Reading Instruction Delivered to Adolescent Students. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse, Valencia, Spain.

Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., & Fien, H. (2013, February). Evaluating the value of a tier 2 intervention in kindergarten mathematics. Paper presented at Pacific Coast Research Conference. San Diego, CA.

Nelson-Walker, N., Carlson, S., Kennedy, P., Turtura, J., Biancarosa, G., Crone, D.A., Baker, S.K., & Fien, H. (February, 2013). Exploring the Relation Between Reading Instruction and Outcomes for Secondary Students. Poster presented at the National Association of School Psychologists annual conference in Seattle, WA.

Nelson, N., Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Smolkowksi, K., Baker, S. K., Crone, D.A., & Smith, J. M. (2013, August). Multifaceted Observation Systems: Examining the Quantity and Quality of Instructional Interactions. Paper presented at the EARLI 2013: 15th Biennial Conference, Munich, Germany.

Strand Cary, M., Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Baker, S. & Jungjohann, K., (2013, March). Evaluating the promise of the FUSION tier 2 math intervention. Paper presented at the 2013 Society for Research in Educational Effectiveness conference, Washington, DC.

Carlson, S. E., Crone, D.A., Nelson-Walker, N.J., Biancarosa, G., Kennedy, P., Cohen, J., Baker, S. K., & Fien, H. (April 2012) Understanding the relationship between reading instruction and reading outcomes for middle school students. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Crone, D. A., Stoolmiller, M., Baker, S. K., & Fien, H. (2012, September). The Middle School Intervention Project: Use of a regression discontinuity design to evaluate a multi-component intervention for struggling readers in five school districts. Paper session presented at the 2012 Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Fall Conference, Washington, D.C.

Doabler, C.T., Miller, S.J., & Baker, S.K. (2012). The Kite And Key: Observing Mathematics Through Ben Franklin’s Spectacles. Paper presented at National Association for School Psychologists (NASP) Annual Convention. Philadelphia, PA.

Doabler, C.T., Baker, S., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Clarke, B., Strand Cary, M. & Chard, D. (2012). Impact And Implementation Analyses Of The ELM Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness Spring Conference. Washington, DC.

Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. T., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Clarke, B., Strand Cary, M. & Chard, D. J. (2012, March). Impact and implementation analyses of the ELM kindergarten mathematics intervention (http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED530368) . Paper presented at the 2012 Spring Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness  Conference, Washington, DC.

Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Strand Cary, M., & Chard, D. J. (2012, April). A tier 1 mathematics intervention: Investigations of beneficial impact and effective implementation. Paper presented at the 2012 Council for Exceptional Children Convention, Denver, CO.

Doabler, C. T., Strand Cary, M., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., & Jungjohann, K. (2012, March). Using single-case design to explore the potential promise of a tier 2 mathematics intervention on student mathematics achievement <http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/detail?accno=ED529429> . Poster presented at the 2012 Spring Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, Washington, D.C.

Strand Cary, M., Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., Jungjohann, K., & Berg, T. (2012, April). What can we learn from teachers implementing FUSION (Foundations of Mathematical Understanding: Developing a Strategic Intervention on Whole Number Concepts)? Formative evaluation of a developing first-grade mathematics intervention. Poster presented (http://m.core-apps.com/aera2012/speakers/c75d8da2be126b14eed85afd85918344) at the 2012 Annual American Educational Research Association Conference, Vancouver, Canada.

Baker, S. K., Clarke, B., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H. & Chard, D. J. (2011, April). The value of a tier 2 intervention in kindergarten mathematics: ELM + ROOTS a randomized control trial. Paper presented at the 2011 American Education Research Association Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Baker, S. K., Clarke, B., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., Doabler, C. T., Chard, D. J., & Strand Cary, M. (2011, September). Testing the efficacy of a kindergarten tier 2 intervention program (https://www.sree.org/conferences/2011f/program/downloads/abstracts/345.pdf) . Paper presented at the 2011 Fall Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness Conference, Washington, DC.

Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., & Chard, D. J. (2011, February). Early Learning in Mathematics. Developing observation instruments to explore mediators of student achievement. <http://pcrc-conference.org/panel11.html>  Paper presented at Pacific Coast Research Conference, Coronado, CA.

Crone, D. A., Kame’enui, E. J., & Baker, S. K. (2011, April). Middle School Intervention Project: Data-driven evaluation of reading and school engagement interventions. Paper presented at the meeting of Council for Exceptional Children, National Harbor, MD.

Baker, S.K., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., Doabler, C., & Chard, D. (2010). Early Learning in Mathematics (ELM): The Efficacy of a Kindergarten Curriculum Implemented in Whole Classroom Settings. Institute for Education Sciences Conference, Washington, D.C.

Baker, S.K., Clarke, B., Chard, D., Fien, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2010). Early learning in mathematics: Efficacy of a core kindergarten mathematics curriculum. American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.

Baker, S. K., Clarke, B., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., Doabler, C. T., & Chard, D. J. (2010, June). Early Learning in Mathematics (ELM): The efficacy of a kindergarten curriculum implemented in whole classroom settings (http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=1244). Paper presented at the 2010 Research Institute for Education Sciences Conference, Washington, D.C.

Baker, D. L., Baker, S. K., Linan-Thompson, S., Kosty, D., Smolkowski, K., Rodriguez-Mielke, A., Miciak, J., Burns, D. (2010, July). Reading intervention with Spanish-speaking students: Maximizing instructional effectiveness in Spanish in first grade – Preliminary results. Poster presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Berlin, Germany.
Baker, D. L., Linan-Thomposon, S., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S. K., Rodriguez-Mielke, A., & Miciak, J. (2010, June). Examining the efficacy of a first grade Spanish reading intervention on Spanish outcomes for English Learners: Preliminary results. Poster presented at the 5th Annual Institute of Education Science Research Conference, National Harbor, MD.
Baker, D.L., Park, Y. & Baker, S. (2010). The role of reading growth in the performance in English and Spanish of Spanish-speaking English learners. American Education Research Association, Denver, CO.

Clarke, B., Baker, S.K, Chard, D., Fien, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2010). Early learning in mathematics: Efficacy of a core kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Pacific Coast Research Conference, Coronado, CA.

Clarke, B., Baker, S.K, Chard, D., Fien, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2010). Early learning in mathematics: Efficacy of a core kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Council for Exceptional Children, Nashville, TN.

Clarke, B., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Doabler, C. T., & Strand Cary, C. (2010, June). Developing a strategic intervention on whole number concepts: Project FUSION. Paper presented at the 2010 Research Institute for Education Sciences Conference, Washington, D.C.

Doabler, C., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S., Clarke, B., Kosty, D., & Strand-Cary, M. (2010). Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten Mathematics. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Washington, DC.

Doabler, C., Fien, H., Smolkowksi, K., Baker, S., Clarke, B., Kosty, D., Strand-Cary, M. (2010). Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten. Society for the Scientific Study of Reading Conference, Berlin, Germany.

Doabler, C., Fien, H., Smolkowski, K., Baker, S., Clarke, B., Kosty, D., & Strand-Cary, M. (2010). Measuring Instructional Interactions in Kindergarten. Accepted for presentation at the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading Conference. Berlin, Germany.

Fien, H., Baker, S., Santoro, L. E., Park, Y., Chard, D., Williams, S., Haria, P., Otterstedt, J. (July, 2010). Enhancing Expository Read Alouds with Tier 2 Vocabulary and Language Instruction. Presented at the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Berlin, Germany.

Park, Y., Baker, S. K., Santoro, L. E., Fien, H., Chard, D., Haria, P., Otterstedt, J., & Williams, S. (March, 2010). Enhancing interactive read-alouds with tier 2 instruction. Poster presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO.

Park, Y., Baker, S., Santoro, L. E., Fien, H., Chard, D., Haria, P., Otterstedt, J., & Williams, S. (April, 2010). Enhancing Interactive Read Alouds with Tier 2 Instruction. Presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting.

Sanford, A. K., Park, Y., Baker, S. K., Nelson-Walker, N. (March, 2010). Reading growth of students identified with disabilities and experience with Oregon Reading First schools. Paper presented at the annual conference of the National Association for School Psychologists. Chicago, IL.

Santoro, L. E., Haria, P., Baker, S., Williams, S., Fien, H., Park, Y., & Otterstedt, J. (April, 2010). Enhancing Interactive Read Alouds in Early Elementary Classrooms with Small Group Instruction. Presented at the Council for Exceptional Children, Nashville, TN.

Baker, S. & Thomas Beck, C. Introduction to Oregon’s K-12 Literacy Framework. Presentation at the 2009 Oregon Conference, Eugene, Oregon, February 17, 2009.
Colonna, J., Golden, N., Smith, L., Thomas Beck, C., Baker, S., & Castillo, S. An Introduction to the Oregon K-12 Literacy Framework. Presentation at the Superintendent’s Summer Institute, Eugene, Oregon, August 4, 2009.
Baker, S., Thomas Beck, C., Fien, H., & Kame’enui, E.J. Increasing Student Reading Achievement Through Use of a Statewide Literacy Framework. Presentation at the 2008 Oregon Conference, Eugene, Oregon, March 6, 2008.
Thomas Beck, C., Baker, S., & Smith, L. Preview of Oregon’s K-12 Literacy Framework. Presentation at the Superintendent’s Summer Institute, Portland, Oregon, August 4, 2008.